presented by Howard A. Lloyd
This course will review the basic organization and function of the human brain. Beginning with a review of nervous system organization, Central Nervous System (CNS), and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), the course will quickly transition to a discussion of the cellular organization of the CNS and a review of major neurotransmitter systems. The majority of this course will be spent on major brain systems, the interconnections between these systems, and the key functions of these systems. By the end of the course, participants will be able to differentiate between cortical and subcortical structures and the major functions of these structures.
Dr. Lloyd earned his doctorate from Baylor University and completed a two-year residency in neuropsychology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. He is Board Certified in Clinical Neuropsychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology/American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology. For over twenty years he has worked in rehabilitation settings with patients who have suffered stroke, traumatic brain injury and other neurological conditions impacting brain functioning. Dr. Lloyd provides neuropsychological services for patients in inpatient rehabilitation as well as outpatients referred by neurologists, physical medicine physicians, primary care physicians, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists and psychiatric nurse practitioners.
This chapter will provide a distinction between the CNS and the PNS to set the stage for deeper explorations of both systems.
This chapter will begin with an explanation of the distinction between neurons and nerves, and review basic cellular anatomy and cell function. The remainder of the chapter will identify the types of cells found in the CNS and the basic function of each cell type.
This chapter will review the main neurotransmitters found in the brain. The two key functions of neurotransmitters (rapid communication vs. neuromodulation) will be discussed. Major locations of cells producing different types of neurotransmitters will be identified.
This chapter will introduce and discuss the functions of the spinal cord and brain stem. The main types of spinal nerves will be reviewed, followed by a review of the twelve cranial nerves.
This chapter will continue the discussion of major brain regions and functions, focusing on the cerebellum and subcortical structures. The main divisions of the cerebellum will be identified, and the function of the cerebellum will be reviewed. The key role of the thalamus will be discussed. Some of the major deficits resulting from damage to the thalamus and basal ganglia will be reviewed.
This chapter reviews the structural components and function of the limbic system. The interactions between the limbic system and other brain regions is vital in the regulation of emotion and memory.
The cerebral cortex, or neocortex, is the newest and most complex part of the brain. It is comprised of four lobes. This part of the brain is critical in higher-level cognitive processes. In this chapter, the organization and function of the cortex will be discussed.